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Once In A Blue Moon

The full moon of November arrives on Sunday and will bring with it a cosmic addition: It will also be a so-called "blue moon."

"But wait a minute," you might ask. "Isn’t a ‘blue moon’ defined as the second full moon that occurs during a calendar month? Sunday’s full moon falls on Nov. 21 and it will be the only full moon in November 2010. So how can it be a ‘blue’ moon?"
Indeed, November’s full moon is blue moon – but only if we follow a rule that’s now somewhat obscure.
In fact, the current "two- full moons in one month" rule has superseded an older rule that would allow us to call Sunday’s moon "blue." To be clear, the moon does not actually appear a blue color during a blue moon, it has to do with lunar mechanics.
Confused yet?

Well, as the late Paul Harvey used to say — here now, is the rest of the story:
The blue moon rule
Back in the July 1943 issue of Sky & Telescope magazine, in a question and answer column written by Lawrence J. Lafleur, there was a reference made to the term "blue moon." [Gallery – Full Moon Fever]
Lafleur cited the unusual term from a copy of the 1937 edition of the now-defunct Maine Farmers’ Almanac (NOT to be confused with The Farmers’ Almanac of Lewiston, Maine, which is still in business).

On the almanac page for August 1937, the calendrical meaning for the term "blue moon" was given.
That explanation said that the moon "… usually comes full twelve times in a year, three times for each season."
Occasionally, however, there will come a year when there are 13 full moons during a year, not the usual 12. The almanac explanation continued:
"This was considered a very unfortunate circumstance, especially by the monks who had charge of the calendar of thirteen months for that year, and it upset the regular arrangement of church festivals. For this reason thirteen came to be considered an unlucky number."
And with that extra full moon, it also meant that one of the four seasons would contain four full moons instead of the usual three.
"There are seven Blue Moons in a Lunar Cycle of nineteen years," continued the almanac, ending on the comment that, "In olden times the almanac makers had much difficulty calculating the occurrence of the Blue Moon and this uncertainty gave rise to the expression ‘Once in a Blue Moon.’"
An unfortunate oversight

But while LaFleur quoted the almanac’s account, he made one very important omission: He never specified the date for this particular blue moon.
As it turned out, in 1937, it occurred on Aug. 21. That was the third full moon in the summer of 1937, a summer season that would see a total of four full moons.
Names were assigned to each moon in a season: For example, the first moon of summer was called the early summer moon, the second was the midsummer moon, and the last was called the late summer moon.
But when a particular season has four moons, the third was apparently called a blue moon so that the fourth and final one can continue to be called the late moon.
So where did we get the "two full moons in a month rule" that is so popular today?
A moon mistake

Once again, we must turn to the pages of Sky & Telescope.
This time, on page 3 of the March 1946 issue, James Hugh Pruett wrote an article, "Once in a Blue Moon," in which he made a reference to the term "blue moon" and referenced LaFleur’s article from 1943.
But because Pruett had no specific full moon date for 1937 to fall back on, his interpretation of the ruling given by the Maine Farmers’ Almanac was highly subjective. Pruett ultimately came to this conclusion:
"Seven times in 19 years there were – and still are – 13 full moons in a year. This gives 11 months with one full moon each and one with two. This second in a month, so I interpret it, was called Blue Moon."
How unfortunate that Pruett did not have a copy of that 1937 almanac at hand, or else he would have almost certainly noticed that his "two full moons in a single month assumption" would have been totally wrong.
For the blue moon date of Aug. 21 was most definitely not the second full moon that month!
Blue moon myth runs wild

Pruett’s 1946 explanation was, of course, the wrong interpretation and it might have been completely forgotten were it not for Deborah Byrd who used it on her popular National Public Radio program, "StarDate" on Jan. 31, 1980.
We could almost say that in the aftermath of her radio show, the incorrect blue moon rule "went viral" — or at least the ’80s equivalent of it.
Over the next decade, this new blue moon definition started appearing in diverse places, such as the World Almanac for Kids and the board game Trivial Pursuit.
I must confess here, that even I was involved in helping to perpetuate the new version of the blue moon phenomenon. Nearly 30 years ago, in the Dec. 1, 1982 edition of The New York Times, I made reference to it in that newspaper’s "New York Day by Day" column.
And by 1988, the new definition started receiving international press coverage.
Today, Pruett’s misinterpreted "two full moons in a month rule" is recognized worldwide. Indeed, Sky & Telescope turned a literary lemon into lemonade, proclaiming later that – however unintentional – it changed pop culture and the English language in unexpected ways.
Meanwhile, the original Maine Farmers’ Almanac rule had been all but forgotten.
Playing by the (old) rules
Now, let’s come back to this Sunday’s full moon.
Under the old Almanac rule, this would technically be a blue moon. In the autumn season of 2010, there are four full moons:

Sept. 23

Oct. 22

Nov. 21

Dec. 21
"

But wait," you might say. "Dec. 21 is the first day of winter."

And you would be correct, but only if you live north of the equator in the Northern Hemisphere. South of the equator it’s the first day of summer.
In 2010, the solstice comes at 6:38 p.m. EST (2338 UT).
But the moon turns full at 3:13 a.m. EST (0813 UT). That’s 15 hours and 25 minutes before the solstice occurs. So the Dec. 21 full moon occurs during the waning hours of fall and qualifies as the fourth full moon of the season.
This means that under the original Maine Almanac rule – the one promoted by Lafleur and later misinterpreted by Pruett – the third full moon of the 2010 fall season on Nov. 21 would be a blue moon.
Choose your blue moon
So what Blue Moon definition tickles your fancy? Is it the second full moon in a calendar month, or (as is the case on Sunday) the third full moon in a season with four?
Maybe it’s both. The final decision is solely up to you.

Sunday’s full moon will look no different than any other full moon. But the moon can change color in certain conditions.
After forest fires or volcanic eruptions, the moon can appear to take on a bluish or even lavender hue. Soot and ash particles, deposited high in the Earth’s atmosphere, can sometimes make the moon appear bluish.
In the aftermath of the massive eruption of Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines in June 1991, there were reports of blue moons (and even blue suns) worldwide.
We could even call the next full moon (on Dec. 21) a "red moon," but for a different reason: On that day there will be a total eclipse of the moon and, for a short while, the moon will actually glow with a ruddy reddish hue.

More on that special event in the days to come here at SPACE.com, so stay tuned!
Gallery – Full Moon Fever
10 Coolest New Moon Discoveries
Full Moon to Dance With Pleiades Star Cluster
Joe Rao serves as an instructor and guest lecturer at New York’s Hayden Planetarium. He writes about astronomy for The New York Times and other publications, and he is also an on-camera meteorologist for News 12 Westchester, N.Y.

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If we had a Italian_President

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My 7 Rules To Personal Philosophy

My 7 rules of personal philosophy

1. That good philosophy is anchored to a foundation structured in a desire for and a love for right things. That every decision we make has been aligned to what is right. Remember sometimes the wrong thing looks like the right thing, and then are times when the right thing looks like the wrong thing.

2. Be honest, loyal and faithful to yourself no matter what the consequences. This is paramount for self development, if a person gets this right, most everything else aligns automatically.

3. Learn to recognize your own shortcomings and make refining these shortcomings a priority until you have achieved greatness. Self refinement is like the cutting of a diamond it requires focus and patience.

4. Know yourself better than you know anyone else. If you do not learn to know yourself, then how can you truly learn to know someone else.

5. A person’s philosophy must foster healthy strong self confidence, as self confidence is the key to healthy growth and personal success and development.

6. Be loyal and true to your own philosophy, someone else’s philosophy may be adaptable, but yours is customized to you.

7. Finally never ever let yourself become a slave to your philosophy, as this will cause constraints and limit your ability to adapt and overcome to life’s ever changing environment.

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A Students Chemical Definition Of Hell

Subject: A Hoot

The following is an actual question given on a  University of

Arizona chemistry mid term, and an actual answer turned in by a student.  
  

The answer by this student was so ‘profound’ that the professor shared it with colleagues, via the Internet, which is, of course, why we now have the pleasure of enjoying it as well:  

 

Bonus Question: Is Hell exothermic (gives off heat) or endothermic (absorbs heat)?  

 

Most of the students wrote proofs of their beliefs using Boyle’s Law (gas cools when it expands and heats when it is compressed) or some variant. 

 

One student, however, wrote the following:  

 

First, we need to know how the mass of Hell is changing in time. So we need to know the rate at which souls are moving into Hell and the rate at which they are leaving, which is unlikely. I think that we can safely assume that once a soul gets to Hell, it will not leave. There fore, no souls are leaving. As for how many souls are entering Hell, let’s look at the different religions that exist in the world today. 

Most of these religions state that if you are not a member of their religion, you will go to Hell. Since there is more than one of these religions and since people do not belong to more than one religion, we can project that all souls go to Hell. With birth and death rates as they are, we can expect the number of souls in Hell to increase exponentially. Now, we look at the rate of change of the volume in Hell because Boyle’s Law states that in order for the temperature and pressure in Hell to stay the same, the volume of Hell has to expand proportionately as souls are added.

This gives two possibilities:  

1. If Hell is expanding at a slower rate than the rate at which souls enter Hell, then the temperature and pressure in Hell will increase until all Hell breaks loose.  

 

2. If Hell is expanding at a rate faster than the increase of souls in Hell, then the temperature and pressure will drop until Hell freezes over.

So which is it?

If we accept the postulate given to me by Teresa during my Freshman year that, ‘It will be a cold day in Hell before I sleep with you,’ and take into account the fact that I slept with her last night, then number two must be true, and thus I am sure that Hell is exothermic and has already frozen over. The corollary of this theory is that since Hell has frozen over, it follows that it is not accepting any more souls and is therefore, extinct….. …leaving only Heaven, thereby proving the existence of a divine being which explains why, last night, Teresa kept shouting ‘Oh my God.’         
   

THIS STUDENT RECEIVED AN A+.

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Fable Of The Porcupine



Fable of the porcupine

It was the coldest winter ever. – Many animals died because of the cold. The porcupines, realizing the situation, decided to group together. This way they covered and protected themselves; but the quills of each one wounded their closest companions even though they gave off heat to each other. After awhile, they decided to distance themselves one from the other and they began to die, alone and frozen. So they had to make a choice: either accept the quills of their companions or disappear from the Earth. Wisely, they decided to go back to being together. This way they learned to live with the little wounds that were caused by the close relationship with their companion, but the most important part of it, was the heat that came from the others. This way they were able to survive.

The best relationship is not the one that brings together perfect people, but the best is when each individual learns to live with the imperfections of others and can admire the other person’s good qualities

The Moral of the story……….LEARN TO LOVE THE PRICKS IN YOUR LIFE

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Who Saved Chile’s Miners? Evil, Greedy American Business?

Who Saved Chile’s Miners? Evil, Greedy American Business?

> So who saved the Chilean miners?  Primarily American ingenuity and
> American business.  Have you heard our president congratulate them for
> their work on behalf of the world?  No.  Have you heard the Chilean
> government openly recognize the American contribution?  Not so much.

>

Far be it for the mainstream progressive American media to publicly
> celebrate (let alone even mention) American ingenuity and American
> companies for their contributions to the miracle rescue of the Chilean
> Miners.  It simply would not have happened without them.  And are
> these Americans working the press to get recognition?  No.  But look
> at their contributions:
>
> –

Schramm Inc. of West Chester, Pennsylvania built the drills and
> equipment used to reach the trapped miners.

> –

Center Rock Company, also from Pennsylvania, built the drill bits
> used to reach the miners.

> –

UPS, the US shipping company, delivered the 13-ton drilling
> equipment from Pennsylvania to Chile in less than 48 hours.

> –

Crews from Layne Christensen Company of Wichita Kansas and its
> subsidiary Geotec Boyles Bros. worked the drills and machinery to
> locate and reach the miners and then enlarge the holes to ultimately
> rescue them.

> –

Jeff Hart of Denver Colorado was called off his job drilling water
> wells for the U.S. Army’s forward operating bases in Afghanistan to
> lead the drilling crew that reached the miners.

> –

Atlas Copco Construction Mining Company of Milwaukee, Wisconsin
> provided consulting on how to make drilling equipment from different
> sources work together under differing pressure specifications.

> –

Aries Central California Video of Fresno California designed the
> special cameras that were lowered nearly a mile into the ground
> sending back video of the miners.

> –

Zephyr Technologies of Annapolis Maryland, made the remote monitors
> of vital signs that miners will wear during their ascent.

> –

NASA Engineers designed the "Phoenix" capsule that miners would be
> brought to the surface in, and provided medical consulting, special
> diets and spandex suits to maintain miners’ blood pressure as they’re
> brought back to the surface.

> –

Oh, and Canadian-based Precision Drilling Corp. and South-African
> company Murray & Roberts, drilled  backup rescue shafts in case the
> American rig failed — which it didn’t.

> Oh, those evil, greedy corporations. They are the enemy of the people.  Right?

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Let’s get America to What She Used to Be

— I love this email and that’s the reason I am sending it to you.

I Am the Democratic Liberal-Progressive’s Worst Nightmare.
I am an White, Conservative, Tax-Paying, American Veteran, Gun Owning Biker.
I am a Master leatherworker. I work hard and long hours with my hands to earn a living.

I believe in God and the freedom of religion, but I don’t push it on others.
I ride Harley Davidson Motorcycles, and drive American-made cars, and I believe in American products and buy them whenever I can.
I believe the money I make belongs to me and not some liberal governmental functionary, Democratic or Republican, that wants to share it with others who don’t work!

I think owning a gun doesn’t make you a killer; it makes you a smart American.

I think being a minority does not make you noble or victimized, and does not entitle you to anything. Get over it!

I believe that if you are selling me a Big Mac or any other item, you should do it in English. I believe there should be no other language option.

I believe everyone has a right to pray to his or her God if, when and where they want to.

My heroes are Malcolm Forbes, Bill Gates, John Wayne, Babe Ruth, Roy Rogers, and Willie G. Davidson, who makes the awesome Harley Davidson Motorcycles.

I don’t hate the rich. I don’t pity the poor.

I know wrestling is fake and I don’t waste my time watching or arguing about it.

I’ve never owned a slave, nor was a slave. I haven’t burned any witches or been persecuted by the Turks, and neither have you!

I believe if you don’t like the way things are here, go back to where you came from and change your own country!

This is AMERICA …We like it the way it is and more so the way it was …so stop trying to change it to look like Russia or China, or other socialist countries!

If you were born here and don’t like it… you are free to move to any Socialist country that will have you. (And take Barack Hussein Obama and his group with you.) Massachusetts started the ball rolling. Keep it going.

I believe it is time to really clean house, starting with the White House, the seat of our biggest problems.

I want to know which church is it, exactly, where the Reverend Jesse Jackson preaches, where he gets his money, and why he is always part of the problem and not the solution.

Can I get an AMEN on that one?

I also think the cops have the right to pull you over if you’re breaking the law, regardless of what color you are, but not just because you happen to ride a bike.

And, no, I don’t mind having my face shown on my driver’s license.

I think it’s good…. And I’m proud that ‘God’ is written on my money..

I think if you are too stupid to know how a ballot works, I don’t want you deciding who should be running the most powerful nation in the world for the next four years.

I dislike those people standing in the intersections trying to sell me stuff or trying to guilt me into making ‘donations’ to their cause…. Get a job and do your part to support yourself and your family!

I believe that it doesn’t take a village to raise a child, it takes two parents….

I believe ‘illegal’ is illegal no matter what the lawyers think!

I believe the American flag should be the only one allowed in AMERICA !

If this makes me a BAD American, then yes, I’m a BAD American.

If you are a BAD American too, please forward this to everyone you know….

We want our country back! My Country…..

I hope this offends all illegal aliens.

My great, great, great, great grandfather watched and bled as his friends died in the Revolution & the War of 1812.
My great, great, great grandfather watched as his friends died in the Mexican American War,
My great, great grandfather watched as his friends & brothers died in the Civil War,
My great grandfather watched as his friends died in the Spanish-American War,
My grandfather watched as his friends died in WW I,
My father watched as his friends died in WW II,

I watched as my friends died in Vietnam, Panama & Desert Storm.

My son watched & bled as his friends have died in Afghanistan and Iraq .
None of them died for the Mexican Flag. Everyone died for the American flag.

Texas high school students raised a Mexican flag on a school flag pole, other students took it down. Guess who was expelled…the students who took it down.

California high school students were sent home on Cinco de Mayo, because they wore T-shirts with the American flag printed on them.

Enough is enough

This message needs to be viewed by every American; and every American needs to stand up for America .

We’ve bent over to appease the America-haters long enough. I’m taking a stand.

I’m standing up because the hundreds of thousands who died fighting in wars for this country, and for the American flag.

If you agree, stand up with me. If you disagree, please let me know. I will gladly remove you from my e-mail list.

And shame on anyone who tries to make this a racist message.

AMERICANS, stop giving away Your RIGHTS !

Let me make this clear! THIS IS MY COUNTRY !

This statement DOES NOT mean I’m against immigration !

YOU ARE WELCOME HERE, IN MY COUNTRY, welcome to come legally:

1. Get a sponsor !

2. Learn the LANGUAGE, as immigrants have in the past !

3. Live by OUR rules !

4. Get a job !

5. Pay YOUR Taxes !

6. No Social Security until you have earned it and Paid for it !

7. NOW find a place to lay your head !

If you don’t want to forward this for fear of offending someone, then YOU’RE PART OF THE PROBLEM !

We’ve gone so far the other way . . . bent over backwards not to offend anyone.
I don’t care if you are offended.
Why doesn’t anyone care if I am offended?

WAKE UP America ! ! !

Made in the U S A & VERY, VERY PROUD OF IT!!!!!

May God Bless You

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A LITTLE GUN HISTORY

A LITTLE GUN HISTORY

In 1929, the Soviet Union established gun control. From 1929 to 1953, about 20 million dissidents, unable to defend themselves, were rounded up and exterminated.
In 1911, Turkey established gun control. From 1915 to 1917, 1.5 million Armenians, unable to defend themselves, were rounded up and exterminated.
Germany established gun control in 1938 and from 1939 to 1945, a total of 13 million Jews and others who were unable to defend themselves were rounded up and exterminated.
China established gun control in 1935. From 1948 to 1952, 20 million political dissidents, unable to defend themselves, were rounded up and exterminated.
Guatemala established gun control in 1964. From 1964 to 1981, 100,000 Mayan Indians, unable to defend themselves, were rounded up and exterminated.
Uganda established gun control in 1970. From 1971 to 1979, 300,000 Christians, unable to defend themselves, were rounded up and exterminated

Cambodia established gun control in 1956. From 1975 to 1977, one million educated people, unable to defend themselves, were rounded up and exterminated.
Defenseless people rounded up and exterminated in the 20th Century because of gun control: 56 million.

Why Fight?

During WWII the Japanese decided not to invade America because they knew most Americans were ARMED!
With guns, we are ‘citizens;’ without them, we are ‘subjects’. You won’t see this data on the US evening news, or hear politicians disseminating this information.

Guns in the hands of honest citizens save lives and property and, yes, gun-control laws adversely affect only the law-abiding citizens

The purpose of fighting is to win. There is no possible victory in defense. The sword is more important than the shield, and skill is more important than either. The final weapon is the brain. All else is supplemental.

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We Are At War/Snopes Has determined this information inaccurate; however, the collection of cell phones all over the US and the world to be used as bomb triggers on our US soldiers has been going on for most of the war!

From: rcsheets222@gmail.com
Date: Tue, 12 Oct 2010 15:08:17 -0700
Subject: Fwd: FW: FRESNO, CALIFORNIA Probing USAF Base

THIS IS SOMETHING EVERYONE NEEDS TO KNOW!!!

We now live about 30 miles from Fresno. We are up in the Sierras and Fresno is the first big town we encounter when we leave the mtns. We shop there often. I received this from my ex-homicide partner who is still active in law enforcement circles in the Fresno area.

Excuse the language, but don’t excuse the facts. Don’t give up your guns, and buy necessary ammunition if you can find it. Be cautious and alert. Be ready if, God forbid, we need to protect our families and loved ones.

If you weren’t at Rotary meeting on Friday, you missed the only decent speaker we’ve had in more than a year. LTC John Cotter is the 144th Fighter Wing’s antiterrorism officer. John had a two-part presentation. First part was describing his job as the unit’s antiterrorism officer. Pretty standard stuff.

The second part was information that will curl your hair. A Part-time air guardsman works as a checker at local Von’s. Two women in full burkas buy every pre-paid cell phone in the store. Clerk/airman gets to thinking about it. Goes to Cotter and reports incident. Cotter asks store for surveillance video. It’s scary enough that he contacts Fresno FBI.

FBI investigates and determines these women have been doing this all over the Valley. Cell phones shipped through Canada to Iraq/Afghanistan where they become triggers for roadside bombs.

The Shell station at Peach and Shaw. Every time a local GI goes there in fatigues they are asked specific questions. What is your unit? When are you deploying? How many aircraft are you taking?

The F-16s out of Fresno fly CAP for west coast. As such they are the first line of defense so they have the US ‘s most sophisticated air-to-air missiles. Foreign governments would like to get their hands on those missiles or at least learn how to build them. Also how many we have, etc. Two spy groups are working on it, one based at Fashion Fair Mall (the F-16s take-off pattern) and one based at Sierra Vista Mall (the F-16s landing pattern).

Cotter said the ragheads (But we don’t profile) are always probing the base. Two dorks in a pickup show up at the front gate wanting to deliver a package marked Air National Guard, Fresno . No postage, no UPS, no FedEx, no DHL, no nothing. Just a probe.

I asked Cotter why we haven’t seen anything about this in The Bee, on KMJ, on local TV news. He said they’re not interested. Since Friday I’ve learned of two other things. My brother-in-law, Frank, (management at Avaya) had a Muslim tech who took a leave-of-absence for 6 weeks in Afghanistan . After the 6 weeks were up he called from New York requesting an extension. Frank (who does profile) said, you’re fired, and called the Fresno FBI who were very interested. Don’t know the outcome.

A Muslim who owns a liquor store in my former hometown of Kingsburg was constantly bugging customers to buy guns for him. Finally one of the guys I grew up with called the FBI.

We are a country at war and the enemy is among us. I don’t care what Janet Napolitano says, it’s a fight to the death and we should be prepared as possible. Brother-in-law Frank has a theory and I think it may be closer to the truth than Homeland Security wants to admit. There are a certain number (probably a large number) of Muslims among us who are awaiting the trigger date and will begin randomly killing as many of us as they can, sort of a Fort Hood on steroids. I know I’m getting prepared to shoot back.

Two items of interest: Sheriff Margaret Mims wants to grant concealed carry permits to all who are qualified. Columnist Jim Boren, among the most bleeding of the bleeding heart liberals, says it’s time for Fresno residents to arm themselves. LOAD up, you can bet this is happening in places other than Fresno .
David Rayburn
I was asked to send this to everyone in my address book. Some of those I’m sending it to WILL NOT forward it! To those I say, “Get your head out of the sand and look around with an open mind or before you know it we will no longer be living in the land of the free and the brave!

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